- Allotropy: When an element can exist is more than one structural form in the same physical state is called allotropy. The different forms of the same elements are known as allotropes.
- Catenation: The ability to form bonds with other atoms going rise to large chains/molecules is called catenation.
- An atom or a group of atoms which makes a carbon compound reactive and determines its properties is called functional group.
- When ethene is heated along with water in the presence of conc. H2SO4 ethyl alcohol is obtained.
- Alcohols react with sodium metal.
- Strong oxidation of alcohols in the presence of KMnO4 or K2Cr2O7 yields aldehydes and further oxidation of aldehydes yields acids.
- Alcohols react with carboxylic acids in the presence of few drops of conc. H2SO4 to form sweet smelling liquids called esters. This reaction is called esterification.
- Ethanoic acid liberates hydrogen gas on reaction with active metals like Na, Mg, Zn.
- Soaps and detergents are sodium salts of different organic acids (or) fatty acids.
- The action of soaps and detergents is based in the presence of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups in the molecules. It helps to emulity the oily dirt and hence its removal.