Improvement in Food Resources | Class IX

1. Explain any one method of crop production A which ensures high yield.

Ans.: One method used for crop production which ensures high yield is plant breeding. It is the science involved in improving the varieties of crops by breeding plants. The plants from different areas, places am picked up with desired traits and then hybridization or cross-breeding of these varieties is done to obtain a plant/crop of desired characteristics. The high yield crop variety shows characteristics such as high yield, early maturation, less water requirement for irrigation, better quality seeds, less requirement of fertilizers, adapts itself to the environmental conditions.

2. Why are manure and fertilizers used in fields?

Ans.: Manure and fertilizers are major sources of nutrients for plants and therefore are used to ensure good vegetative growth (leaves, branches and flowers), give rise to healthy plants, that results in high crop production.

3. What are the advantages of intercropping and crop rotation?

Ans.: Advantages ot intercropping are :

i. It helps to maintain soil fertility.

ii. It increases productivity per unit arca.

iii. It saves labour and time.

iv. Both crops can be easily harvested . processed separately.

Advantages of crop rotation are :

i. It improves the soil fertility.

ii. It avoids depletion of a particular nut from the soil.

iii. It minimizes pest infestation and disease,.

iv. It helps in weed control.

v. It prevents change in the chemical nature of the soil.

4.What is genetic manipulation? Now is it useful in agricultural practices?

Ans: genetic manipulation is a process of transferring  genes (charecters)  that are desirable from one plant to another plant. This is done for production of varieties with desirable characteristics like profuse branching in fodder crops, high yielding varieties in maize, wheat, etc.

Genetic manipulation is useful in developing varieties which have increased yield, better quality, shorter and early maturity period, better adaptability to adverse environmental conditions, desirable characteristics. Agricultural practices of cultivation and yielding of crops are directly related to agronomic conditions. These conditions are based on weather, soil quality and water resources availability. Since weather conditions are unpredictable such as drought and flood situations, therefore, crop varieties have been developed that can be grown in diverse climatic conditions.

5.How do storage grain losses occur?

Ans. The factors responsible for loss of grains during storage are:
i. Abiotic factors like moisture (present in food grains), humidity (of air) and temperature.
ii. Biotic factors like insects, rodents, birds, mites and bacteria.

6. How do animal husbandry practices benefit farmers?

Ans. Good animal husbandry practices are beneficial to the farmers in the following ways:
i. Improvement of breeds of the domesticated animals.
ii. Increase the yield of foodstuffs such as milk, eggs and meat.
iii. Proper management of domestic animals in terms of shelter, feeding care and protection against diseases.

7.What are the benefits of cattle farming?
Ans. Cattle farming is beneficial in the given ways:
i. Milk production is increased by high yielding animals.
ii. Good quality of meat, fibre and skin can be obtained.
iii. Good breed of draught animals can be obtained.

8. For increasing production, what is common in poultry, fisheries and bee-keeping?

Ans. Through cross breeding, the production of poultry, fisheries and bee keeping can be increased.

9. How do you differentiate between captur fishing, mariculture, and aquaculture?

Ans. Capture fishing: It is the fishing in which fishes are captured from natural resources like pond, sea, estuaries.

Mariculture: It is the culture of fishes in marine water on commercial basis. Varieties like prawns, oysters, bhetki, mullets are cultured for fishing.

Aquaculture: It is the production of useful, i.e., high economic value aquatic plants and animals such as fishes, prawns, crayfish, lobsters, crabs, shrimps etc. and sea weeds by proper utilization of available waters in the country. It is done both in fresh water and in marine wat

10.what are genetically modified crops?

Ans. Crop in which foreign gene with required characters is introduced for its improvement is called genetically modified crop.

11. State the differences between compost and vermicompost.

Ans.: The compost is obtained by decomposition of organic waste like animal excreta, plant waste sewage waste, straw, eradicated weeds etc., naturally due to decomposition by bacteria and when to hasten the process of decompostion, earthworms are added to this organic matter to obtain compost it is called vermicompost.

12. What causes disease in plants?

Ans.: Diseases in plants are caused by pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and viruses.

13.What are the different ways/methods of hybridization ?

Ans: Hybridization can be of the following types:

a. Intervarietal-between different varieties of crops.

b. Interspecific - between two different species of same genus. tergeneric - between two different era.

c. Intergenetic- between two different genera.