Microorganisms | NCERT Solution | Class VIII

Fill in the blanks:
  • Microorganisms can be seen with the help of a ____________.
  • Blue green algae fix __________ directly from air to enhance fertility of soil.
  • Alcohol is produced with the help of __________.
  • Cholera is caused by __________.

Answer: (a) microscope, (b) nitrogen, (c) yeast, (d) bacteria

Tick the correct answer:

Question 1: Yeast is used in the production of

  • Sugar
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrochloric acid
  • OxygenAnswer: (b) Alcohol

Question 2: The following is an antibiotic

  • Sodium bicarbonate
  • Streptomycin
  • Alcohol
  • YeastAnswer: (b) Streptomycin

Question 3: Carrier of malaria-causing protozoan is

  • female Anopheles mosquito
  • cockroach
  • housefly
  • butterflyAnswer: (a) Female Anopheles mosquito

Question 4: The most common carrier of communicable diseases is

  • ant
  • housefly
  • dragonfly
  • spiderAnswer: (b) Housefly

Question 5: The bread or idli dough rises because of

  • heat
  • grinding
  • growth of yeast cells
  • kneadingAnswer: (c) Growth of yeast cells

Question 6: The process of conversion of sugar into alcohol is called

  • nitrogen fixation
  • moulding
  • fermentation
  • infection

Answer: (c) Fermentation

Match the organisms in Column I with their action in Column II.
Column I Column II
(a) Bacteria (1) Fixing nitrogen
(b) Rhizobium (2) Setting of curd
(c) Lactobacillus (3) Baking of bread
(d) Yeast (4) Causing malaria
(e) A protozoan (5) Causing cholera
(f) A virus (6) Causing AIDS
(g) Producing antibodies

Answer: (a) → 5, (b) → 1, (c) → 2, (d) → 3, (e) → 4, (f) → 6

Answer these question:

Question 1: Can microorganisms be seen with the naked eye? If not, how can they be seen?

Answer: Such organisms can be seen through microscope.

Question 2: What are the major groups of microorganisms?

Answer: The major groups of microorganisms are: bacteria, algae, fungi and protozoa

Question 3: Name the microorganisms which can fix atmospheric nitrogen in the soil.

Answer: Rhizobium, Blue-green algae

Question 4: Write 10 lines on the usefulness of microorganisms in our lives.

Answer: Usefulness of microorganisms:

  • Lactobacillus helps in making curd from milk.
  • Yeast helps in rising of dough and batter while making various food items.
  • Yeast helps in fermentation and thus in production of wine.
  • Antibiotics are made from microbes.
  • Microbes help in cleaning the environment by decomposing dead remains of plants and animals.
  • Microbes help in nitrogen fixation in soil.
  • Some microbes in our digestive system help in digestion of food.
  • Weak strains of some microbes are utilized to make vaccine against diseases.
  • Microbes help in making of compost.
  • Lactobacillus (present in curd) is beneficial for our health.

Question 5: Write a short paragraph on the harms caused by microorganisms.

Answer: Many microorganisms are harmful for us. Some microbes enter our body and cause diseases. Some of the infectious diseases can be highly debilitating in nature. Some microbes infect cattle and poultry and thus cause heavy loss to us. Some microbes damage the crops. Microbes also spoil our food. For example; fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, milk, etc. can easily get spoiled due to microbes.

Question 6: What are antibiotics? What precautions must be taken while taking antibiotics?

Answer: A substance which kills or stops the growth of diseasecausing microorganism (pathogens) present in our body are called antibiotic.

Following precautions need to be taken while taking antibiotics:

  • Always follow a doctor’s prescription while taking an antibiotic.
  • Never take an antibiotic without consulting a doctor.
  • Always complete the prescribed dose of antibiotic. Don’t stop taking an antibiotic in between.
  • Keep antibiotics away from children.
  • Never use an antibiotic which is past its expiry date.
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