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Designing of the research is done mainly to solve the problem of getting the various stages of the research under control. This control factor is very important for the researcher during any of the research operation. Preparation of the design for the research forms a very critical stage in the process of carrying out some research work or a research project.
Research Design in general terms can be referred to as the scheme of work to be done or performed by a researcher during the various stages of a research project.
With the help of the research design, one can very easily handle and operate research work as research design acts as a working plan, which is made by a researcher even before he starts working on his research project. By this, researcher gets a great help and guidance in achieving his aims and goals.
According to Russell Ackoff, research design is the process of making decisions before a situation arises in which the decision has to be carried out. It is actually a process of deliberate anticipation directed towards bringing an unexpected situation under control.
Russell Ackoff has in a great way explained about the research design in his book ‘Designs of Social Research’.
Meaning of research design
Like an architect prepares a blue print before he approves a construction – in the same way researcher makes or prepares a plan or a schedule of his own study before he starts his research work. This helps the researcher to save time and also save some of his crucial resources. This plan or blue print of study is referred to as the research design.
Research design is also called as the research strategy and the various steps or stages that a research design may include can be summarized as follows –
1. Research problem selection
2. Problem presentation
3. Hypothesis formulation
4. Conceptual clarity
6. Literature survey
8. Collection of the data
9. Hypothesis testing
10. Interpretation of the result
11. Report writing
This specific presentation of the various steps in the process of research was given by Cook Jahoda.
Factors affecting research design
1. Availability of scientific information
2. Availability of sufficient data
3. Time availability
4. Proper exposure to the data source
5. Availability of the money
6. Manpower availability
7. Magnitude of the management problem
8. Degree of Top management’ s support
9. Ability, knowledge, skill, technical understanding and technical background of the researcher
10. Controllable variables
11. Un – controllable variables
12. Internal variables
13. External variables
Advantages of research design
1. Consumes less time.
2. Ensures project time schedule.
3. Helps researcher to prepare himself to carry out research in a proper and a systematic way.
4. Better documentation of the various activities while the project work is going on.
5. Helps in proper planning of the resources and their procurement in right time.
6. Provides satisfaction and confidence, accompanied with a sense of success from the beginning of the work of the research project.