Q1. What were havelis?
Ans. Large mansions of merchants were called havelis.

Q2. When was Humayun tomb constructed?
Ans. Tomb of Humayun, constructed between 1562 and 1571.

Q3. How did Persian court chronicles describe sultan?
Ans. Persian court chronicles described the Sultan as the “Shadow of God”.

Q4. Explain the term mahamandapa.
Ans. It refers to the main hall of the temple where dances were performed.

Q5. What is a superstructure?
Ans. Superstructure refers to the part of a building above the ground floor.

Q6. Who built Jami Masjid?
Ans. Jami Masjid was built by Shah Jahan in his new capital at Shahjahanabad.

Q7. Who built Rajarajeshvara temple?
Ans. It was built by King Rajarajadeva for the worship of his god, Rajarajeshvaram

Q8. What is a shikhara?
Ans. Shikhara, a Sanskrit word translating literally to "mountain peak", refers to the rising tower in the Hindu temple architecture of North India.

Q9. What is pietra-dura?
Ans. Pietra-dura refers to coloured, hard stones placed in depressions carved into marble or sandstone creating beautiful, ornate patterns.

Q10. Who constructed kandariya mahadeva temple and when?
Ans. The Kandariya Mahadeva temple dedicated to Shiva was constructed in 999 by the king Dhangadeva of the Chandela dynasty.

Q11. What is the special feature of Akbar’s capital at Fatehpur Sikri?
Ans. In Akbar’s capital at Fatehpur Sikri many of the buildings show the influence of the architectural styles of Gujarat and Malwa.

Q12. Who invaded Sri Lanka and whom did he defeat?
Ans. In the early ninth century the Pandyan king Shrimara Shrivallabha invaded Sri Lanka and defeated the king, Sena I (831-851).

Q13. How much labor and materials was used to build the Agra Fort?
Ans. Built by Akbar, the Agra Fort required 2,000 stone-cutters, 2,000 cement and lime-makers and 8,000 labourers.

Q14. Who won the universal respect for constructing a large reservoir just outside Dehli-i-Kuhna?
Ans. Sultan Iltutmish won universal respect for constructing a large reservoir just outside Dehli-i-Kuhna.

Q15. Where is Harmandar Sahib?
Ans. The Golden Temple, also known as Sri Harmandar Sahib ("abode of God") or Darbar Sahib, is a Gurdwara located in the city of Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Q16. What was Hauz-i-Sultani?
Ans. Sultan Iltutmish won universal respect for constructing a large reservoir just outside Dehli-i-Kuhna. It was called the Hauz-i-Sultani or the “King’s Reservoir”.

Q17. Why was limestone used in construction of large structures?
Ans. Limestone was very high-quality cement, which, when mixed with stone chips hardened into concrete. This made construction of large structures easier and faster.

Q18. What are the elements of a Mughal chahar bagh garden?
Ans. Mughal chahar bagh garden consisted of four gardens. These gardens are placed within rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters by artificial channels.

Q19. How did king win the praise of their subjects?
Ans. Kings were expected to care for their subjects, and by making structures such as temples, mosques, tanks, wells, caravanserais and bazaars for public activity, rulers hoped to win their praise.
Q20. Which style was used in the construction between the eighth and thirteenth centuries?
Ans. Between the eighth and thirteenth centuries the trabeate style was used in the construction of temples, mosques, tombs and in buildings attached to large stepped-wells (baolis).

Q21. Why were temples destroyed?
Ans. Temples were destroyed because kings built temples to demonstrate their devotion to God and their power and wealth. It is not surprising that when they attacked one another’s kingdoms they often targeted these buildings.

Q22. Who built Qutb Minar?
Ans. The first floor was constructed by Qutbuddin Aybak and the rest by Iltutmish around 1229. Over the years it was damaged by lightning and earthquakes and repaired by Alauddin Khalji, Muhammad Tughluq, Firuz Shah Tughluq and Ibrahim Lodi.

Q23. What types of architects found between seventh and tenth centuries?
Ans. Between the seventh and tenth centuries architects started adding more rooms, doors and windows to buildings. Roofs, doors and windows were still made by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical columns, a style of architecture called “trabeate” or “corbelled”.

Q24. How is the “trabeate” principle of architecture different from the “arcuate”?
Ans. In “trabeate” principle of architecture roofs, doors and windows were made by placing a horizontal beam across two vertical columns.

In “arcuate” principle of architecture the weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was sometimes carried by arches.

Q25. Write a short note on architecture of Taj Mahal.
Ans. Shah Jahan adapted the river-front garden in the layout of the Taj Mahal, the grandest architectural accomplishment of his reign. Here the white marble mausoleum was placed on a terrace by the edge of the river and the garden was to its south. Shah Jahan develop this architectural form as a means to control the access that nobles had to the river.

Q26. Write a short note on Qutb Minar.
Ans. Qutbuddin Aybak had this constructed around 1199. The Qutb Minar is five storeys high. There is pattern created under the balcony by the small arches and geometrical designs. Surface of the minar is curved and angular. Placing an inscription on such a surface required great precision. Only the most skilled craftsperson could perform this task.

Q27. What role did the Yamuna play in the layout of the new Mughal city at Shahjahanabad?
Or
What were the main features of Shah Jahan's new city Shahjahanabad?
Ans. In the new city of Shahjahanabad that he constructed in Delhi, the imperial palace commanded the river-front. Only specially favoured nobles – like his eldest son Dara Shukoh – were given access to the river. All others had to construct their homes in the city away from the River Yamuna.

Q28. What kinds of structure were built between 8th and 18th century?
Ans. Between the eighth and the eighteenth centuries kings and their officers built two kinds of structures:

i. The first were forts, palaces, garden residences and tombs – safe, protected and grandiose places of rest in this world.

ii. The second were structures meant for public activity including temples, mosques, tanks, wells, caravanserais and bazaars.

Q29. What are the main features of Humayun’s tomb?
Ans. The central towering dome and the tall gateway (pishtaq) became important aspects of Mughal architecture, first visible in Humayun’s tomb. The tomb was placed in the centre of a huge formal chahar bagh and built in the tradition known as “eight paradises” or hasht bihisht – a central hall surrounded by eight rooms. The building was constructed with red sandstone, edged with white marble.

Q30. Write a short note on the chahar bagh constructed by the Mughals rulers.
Ans. In his autobiography, Babur described his interest in planning and laying out formal gardens, placed within rectangular walled enclosures and divided into four quarters by artificial channels. These gardens were called chahar bagh, four gardens, because of their symmetrical division into quarters. Beginning with Akbar, some of the most beautiful chahar baghs were constructed by Jahangir and Shah Jahan in Kashmir, Agra and Delhi.

Q31. How did a temple communicate the importance of a king?
Or
Why temples were built by rulers?
Ans. Temples were beautifully constructed because they were places of worship. They were also meant to demonstrate the power, wealth and devotion of the patron. As each new dynasty came to power, kings wanted to emphasise their moral right to be rulers. Constructing places of worship provided rulers with the chance to proclaim their close relationship with God, especially important in an age of rapid political change.

Q32. Construction of Rajarajeshvara temple was not easy. Give reason.
Ans. The Rajarajeshvara temple at Thanjavur had the tallest shikhara amongst temples of its time. Constructing it was not easy because there were no cranes in those days and the 90 tonne stone for the top of the shikhara was too heavy to lift manually. So the architects built an inclined path to the top of the temple, placed the boulder on rollers and rolled it all the way to the top. The path started more than 4 km away so that it would not be too steep. This was dismantled after the temple was constructed.

Q33. Write about shah Jahan audience hall.
Ans. Shah Jahan’s audience halls were specially constructed to resemble a mosque. The pedestal on which his throne was placed was frequently described as the qibla, the direction faced by Muslims at prayer, since everybody faced that direction when court was in session. The idea of the king as a representative of God on earth was suggested by these architectural features. The construction of Shah Jahan’s audience hall aimed to communicate that the king’s justice would treat the high and the low as equals creating a world where all could live together in harmony.

Q34. Write a short note on the Kandariya Mahadeva temple?
Ans. Kandariya Mahadeva Temple

i. The Kandariya Mahadeva temple dedicated to Shiva was constructed in 999 by the king Dhangadeva of the Chandela dynasty.

ii. An ornamented gateway led to an entrance, and the main hall (mahamandapa) where dances were performed.

iii. The image of the chief deity was kept in the main shrine (garbhagriha). This was the place for ritual worship where only the king, his immediate family and priests gathered.

Q35. An inscription in Shah Jahan’s diwan-i khas in Delhi stated: “If there is Paradise on Earth, it is here, it is here, it is here.” How was this image created?
Ans. Shah Jahan’s audience halls were specially constructed to resemble a mosque. The pedestal on which his throne was placed was frequently described as the qibla, the direction faced by Muslims at prayer, since everybody faced that direction when court was in session. The idea of the king as a representative of God on earth was suggested by these architectural features. Construction of diwan-i-khas reflected the image of paradise in itself.

Q36. Mughal rulers were particularly skilled in adapting regional architectural styles in the construction of their own buildings. Explain.
Ans. Mughal rulers were particularly skilled in adapting regional architectural styles in the construction of their own buildings. In Bengal, for example, the local rulers had developed a roof that was designed to resemble a thatched hut. The Mughals liked this “Bangla dome” so much that they used it in their architecture. The impact of other regions was also evident. In Akbar’s capital at Fatehpur Sikri many of the buildings show the influence of the architectural styles of Gujarat and Malwa.

Q37. What is gothic architecture?
Ans. From the twelfth century onwards, attempts began in France to build churches that were taller and lighter than earlier buildings. This architectural style, known as Gothic, was distinguished by high pointed arches, the use of stained glass, often painted with scenes drawn from the Bible, and flying buttresses. Tall spires and bell towers which were visible from a distance were added to the church. One of the best-known examples of this architectural style is the church of Notre Dame in Paris, which was constructed through several decades in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
Q38. How did the Mughal court suggest that everyone – the rich and the poor, the powerful and the weak – received justice equally from the emperor?
Ans. The connection between royal justice and the imperial court was emphasised by Shah Jahan in his newly constructed court in the Red Fort at Delhi. Behind the emperor’s throne were a series of pietra dura inlays that depicted the legendary Greek god Orpheus playing the lute. It was believed that Orpheus’s music could calm ferocious beasts until they coexisted together peaceably. The construction of Shah Jahan’s audience hall aimed to communicate that the king’s justice would treat the high and the low as equals creating a world where all could live together in harmony.

Q39. What are the important architectural features of Humayun's tomb?
Ans. Architectural features of Humayun's tomb

i. The central towering dome and the tall gateway (pishtaq) became important aspects of Mughal architecture, first visible in Humayun’s tomb.

ii. The tomb was placed in the centre of a huge formal chahar bagh and built in the tradition known as “eight paradises” or hasht bihisht – a central hall surrounded by eight rooms.

iii. The building was constructed with red sandstone, edged with white marble.

Q40. List the two technological and stylistic developments noticeable from the twelfth century.
Ans. Two technological and stylistic developments are noticeable from the twelfth century.

i. The weight of the superstructure above the doors and windows was sometimes carried by arches. This architectural form was called “arcuate”.

ii. Limestone cement was increasingly used in construction. This was very high-quality cement, which, when mixed with stone chips hardened into concrete. This made construction of large structures easier and faster.

Q41. How were the policies of Rajendra I and Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni different?
Ans. In the early eleventh century, when the Chola king Rajendra I built a Shiva temple in his capital he filled it with prized statues seized from defeated rulers.

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni was a contemporary of Rajendra I. During his campaigns in the subcontinent he also attacked the temples of defeated kings and looted their wealth and idols. Sultan Mahmud was not a very important ruler at that time. But by destroying temples – especially the one at Somnath – he tried to win credit as a great hero of Islam.

Thus, Rajendra I constructed the temple whereas Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni destroyed it. In this way their policies were different.

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