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Water harvesting is an age-old concept in India | Grade 10

They are called as: Khadins, tanks and nadis in Rajasthan, Bandharas and tals in Maharashtra, Bundhis in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, ahars and pynes in Bihar, Kulhs in Himachal Pradesh, Ponds in the Kandi belt of Jammu region, and Eris (tanks) in Tamil Nadu, Surangams in Kerala, and Kattas Read more…

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Effects of Soil Pollution | Class IX

(i) Chemicals, pesticides, metals, industrial wastes, animal refuse and other pollutants are extremely toxic to living beings and plant products, and cause severe chronic diseases posing a serious threat to human health. (ii) Solid wastes result in offensive odour and cause clogging of groundwater filters. (iii) Polluted soil damages crops Read more…

Sources of Soil Pollution | Class IX

Soil pollution mainly results trom the following sources: (i) Industrial wastes: wastes discharged from pulp and paper mills, chemical industries, oil refineries, coal and mining industries, etc., are responsible for soil pollution. (ii) Urban wastes: solid wastes and refuse in urban areas contribute to soil pollution. (iii) Radioactive pollutants: radioactive Read more…

Nitrogen Cycle | Class IX

The steps of nitrogen cycle are as follows: (1) Nitrogen fixation: It is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into water-soluble compounds like nitrates and nitrites either by the free-living bacteria or Rhizobium that are found in the root nodules of legumes. Atmospheric nitrogen also gets converted into nitrates and nitrites Read more…

Water Cycle | Class IX

The water cycle is the journey water takes as it circulates from the land to the sky and back again. It involves the following steps: (i) The Sun’s heat provides the energy for evaporation of water from the Earth’s surface (oceans, lakes, rivers, etc.) (ii) Plants also lose water into Read more…

Atmospheric Zones | Class IX

The atmosphere is divided into different zones • 1.Troposphere     2. Stratospher     3. Mesosphere and     4.Thermosphere, also known as ionosphere. Troposphere: It is the lowest layer which extends upto about 12-15 km above the ground. It is very important for us. The air which we breathe exists in Read more…

What are synthetic fuels? | ClassX

Fuels which do not exist in nature are known as synthetic fuels. They are synthesised or manufactured from varieties of fossil fuels which cannot be used conveniently in their natural forms. Examples are substitute natural gas (SNG) manufactured from coal, peat or oil shales, and synthetic liquid fuels produced from Read more…